When word of the crisis reached Washington, President James Buchanan sent General
Winfield Scott, commanding general of the U.S. Army, to investigate and try to contain the affair.
Through correspondence with Governor Douglas, Scott arranged for each nation to withdraw
its reinforcements, leaving the island with a single company of U.S. soldiers
and a British warship anchored in Griffin Bay. Unbeknownst to either Scott or
Douglas, the governments in mid-September had agreed to a joint military
occupation until a final settlement could be reached. Harney was officially
rebuked and afterwards reassigned for allowing the situation to get so out of
hand. Casey's soldiers were withdrawn and replaced by others under a different
officer. On March 21st 1860, British Royal Marines landed on the island's
northwest coast and established on Garrison Bay what is now known as "English
San Juan Island remained under joint military occupation for the next 12 years.
In 1871, when Great Britain and the United States signed the Treaty of Washington,
the San Juan question was referred to Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany for settlement.
The Kaiser referred the issue to a three-man arbitration commission who met for
nearly a year in Geneva. On October 21st 1872, the commission, ruled in favor
of the United States, establishing the boundary line through Haro Strait. The San Juan
Islands became American possessions and the final boundary between
Canada and the United States was set. On November 25th 1872, the Royal Marines
withdrew from English Camp. By July 1874, the last of the U.S. troops had left
American Camp. Peace had finally come to the 49th parallel, and San Juan Island
would be long remembered for a military confrontation in which the only casualty
was a pig.